Can a Transaction Occur if One Spouse is Incapacitated?

An elderly married couple wished to sell their home, but they had a big problem. The notary public refused to notarize the wife’s signature, because she clearly did not understand the document she was being asked to sign. Because there was no power of attorney in place that could have authorized her husband to represent her, the transaction came to a halt.

This situation, as described in Lake Country News’ article “When one spouse becomes incapacitated,” is not an uncommon occurrence. The couple needed to petition the court for an order authorizing the transaction. When one spouse is competent while the second is not, the competent spouse may ask the court for permission to conduct the transaction.

The request in Mississippi requires the following:

The incapacitated spouse must have an examination by a physician and a capacity evaluation form must be filed with the court.

The court may appoint a “guardian ad litem” to represent the incapacitated spouse’s interests. The person might be an adult child, or an attorney. That person must then file a written report with their recommendation to the court.

Next, the Court will set a hearing where family members will be asked to attend.

In the example that starts this article, the purpose was to authorize the sale of their home, so they could move out of state to live with their children. Another example could be to transfer property, so an incapacitated spouse may become eligible for government benefits.

Finally, the notice of hearing and a copy of the petition must be served on all the incapacitated spouse’s children and grandchildren. Any of these individuals are permitted to object and could set the proceedings back months or even years.

How much easier would it be to simply meet with an estate planning attorney long before there are any health or mental capacity issues and have a power of attorney document created for each of the spouses?

Speak with an experienced estate planning attorney to have your estate plan, which includes the power of attorney document, and have all these important documents created before you need them.

Call us (228) 460-5243 or email us at info@perklawgroup.com to find our how your estate planning attorney can help you.

Legal disclaimer: The information in this article is provided for information purposes only and should not be construed as legal advice. Your should not act or refrain from acting on the basis of any content included in this article or on our website (www.perklawgroup.com) without seeking legal or professional advice.

Reference: Lake Country News (July 27, 2019) “When one spouse becomes incapacitated”

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How Do Trusts Work in Your Estate Plan?

A trust can be a useful tool for passing on assets, allowing them to be held by a responsible trustee for beneficiaries. However, determining which type of trust is best for each family’s situation and setting them up so they work with an estate plan, can be complex. You’ll do better with the help of an estate planning attorney, says The Street in the article “How to Set Up a Trust Fund: What You Need to Know.”

Depending upon the assets, a trust can help avoid estate taxes that might make the transfer financially difficult for those receiving the assets. The amount of control that is available with a trust, is another reason why they are a popular estate planning tool.

First, make sure that you have enough assets to make using a trust productive. There are some tax complexities that arise with the use of trusts. Unless there is a fair amount of money involved, it may not be worth the expense. Once you’ve made that decision, it’s time to consider what type of trust is needed.

Revocable Trusts are trusts that can be changed. If you believe that you will live for a long time, you may want to use a revocable trust, so you can make changes to it, if necessary. Because of its flexibility, you can change beneficiaries, terminate the trust, or leave it as is. You have options. Once you die, the revocable trust becomes irrevocable and distributions and assets shift to the beneficiaries.

A revocable trust avoids probate for the trust, but will be counted as part of your “estate” for estate tax purposes. They are includable in your estate, because you maintain control over them during your lifetime.

They are used to help manage assets as you age, or help you maintain control of assets, if you don’t believe the trustees are not ready to manage the funds.

Irrevocable Trusts cannot be changed once they have been implemented. If estate taxes are a concern, it’s likely you’ll consider this type of trust. The assets are given to the trust, thus removing them from your taxable estate.

Deciding whether to use an irrevocable trust is not always easy. You’ll need to be comfortable with giving up complete control of assets.

These are just two of many different types of trusts. There are trusts set up for distributions to pay college expenses, Special Needs Trusts for disabled individuals, charitable trusts for philanthropic purposes and more. Your estate planning attorney will be able to identify what trusts are most appropriate for your situation.

Here’s how to prepare for your meeting with an estate planning attorney:

List all of your assets. List everything you might want to place in a trust: including accounts, investments and real estate.

List beneficiaries. Include primary and secondary beneficiaries.

Map out the specifics. Who do you want to receive the assets? How much do you want to leave them? You should be as detailed as possible.

Choose a trustee. You’ll need to name someone you trust implicitly, who understands your financial situation and who will be able to stand up to any beneficiaries who might not like how you’ve structured your trust. It can be a professional, if there are no family members or friends who can handle this task.

Don’t forget to fund the trust. This last step is very important. The trust document does no good, if the trusts are not funded. You may do better letting your estate planning attorney handle this task, so that accounts are properly titled with assets and the trusts are properly registered with the IRS.

Creating a trust fund can be a complex task. However, with the help of an experienced estate planning attorney, this strategy can yield a lifetime of benefits for you and your loved ones.

Call us (228) 460-5243 or email us at info@perklawgroup.com to find our how your estate planning attorney can help you.

Legal disclaimer: The information in this article is provided for information purposes only and should not be construed as legal advice. Your should not act or refrain from acting on the basis of any content included in this article or on our website (www.perklawgroup.com) without seeking legal or professional advice.

Reference: The Street (July 22, 2019) “How to Set Up a Trust Fund: What You Need to Know”

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What Do I Need to Know Before Becoming an Estate Executor?

An executor steps in for the person who wrote the will and makes sure that all the final arrangements are carried out. When you agree to be named the executor or personal representative of an estate, it’s a big decision. It is far more significant than most people realize. There are many responsibilities to think about, before agreeing to take on the role. Investopedia’s recent article, “5 Things to Consider Before Becoming an Estate Executor” lists five things to consider before saying yes.

  1. Complexity of the Estate. Typically, the larger the estate—which can be in terms of property, possessions, assets or the number of beneficiaries—the harder and more time consuming it will be. The best way to see how difficult the job will be, is to request to see a copy of the current will. If there are obvious red flags, like unequal distributions to children or trusts or annuities, it may be best to say no.
  2. Time Commitment. This job takes time and energy, and requires a lot of attention to detail. Truth be told, almost all has to do with the details. Before you agree to execute a will, you should be sure that you have the time to do the job. It’s also important to review your decision to serve as an executor every time your situation changes, like when you get married, have children or change locations. It’s not unusual for a testator to change executors throughout a lifetime.
  3. Immediate Responsibilities. You may agree to be an executor, thinking that it’ll be years before you have to do any work. However, that’s not always the case. You should be sure the testator is keeping a list of assets and debts and knows where the original will, and the asset list are being held and how to access them. You should also have a list of the contact info for attorneys or agents named by the testator. You can also discuss the testator’s wishes for a funeral or memorial service, including instructions for burial or cremation.
  4. Duties After the Testator Dies. This is when the executor must make funeral arrangements, locate the will, initiate probate, manage assets, pay all debts, submit tax returns and more. This can be a snap, if you’re organized and detail oriented.
  5. How You’ll Be Paid. Each state has laws on how an executor is paid. An executor is also entitled to be compensated for expenses incurred, as they carry out their responsibilities. Executors can also refuse compensation, which is common if you’re doing this for a member of your family.

It’s an honor to be asked to be an executor. It means the testator trusts you to carry out their final wishes and to see to their legacy. However, be sure that you’re up to the task.

Call us (228) 460-5243 or email us at info@perklawgroup.com to find our how your estate planning attorney can help you.

Legal disclaimer: The information in this article is provided for information purposes only and should not be construed as legal advice. Your should not act or refrain from acting on the basis of any content included in this article or on our website (www.perklawgroup.com) without seeking legal or professional advice.

Reference: Investopedia (June 25, 2019) “5 Things to Consider Before Becoming an Estate Executor”

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Small Business Saturday – What Small Business Owners Should Know about Business Credit

For a small business to grow, it is often necessary to borrow money. In fact, the Small Business Administration reports that the inability to obtain funding is one of the main obstacles that prevents small businesses from expanding their operations. To increase your business’s chances of obtaining much-needed funding, it is important to understand and establish business credit.

What is Business Credit?

Most people know that each individual has a personal credit score that helps lenders decide how likely a person is to repay a loan. Lenders use that score to determine whether to provide a person with financing—auto loans, home mortgages, or lines of credit—as well as the terms for such financing. However, many small business owners do not know that their businesses can establish a separate credit score—and that there are benefits to doing so.

What Are the Benefits?

According to the Small Business Administration, nearly half of small businesses use personal credit cards for business expenses. However, separating your personal credit from your business can protect your personal credit score in the event your business encounters difficulties in repaying a loan. Likewise, if your personal credit score is low, building a good business credit history for your company can be beneficial, opening up more opportunities for financing, as well as for obtaining better interest rates and repayment terms.

How Can It Be Established?

For businesses like sole proprietorships, which are not legally separate from their owners, it is more difficult to establish a separation between business and personal credit. However, it is not impossible to build separate business credit. The following steps can help your business build a separate credit score:

  • Obtain an employer identification number (EIN) from the Internal Revenue Service. Some business forms, like sole proprietorships and single-member LLCs, are seldom required to get an EIN for tax purposes, but must obtain one for building separate business credit. Multi-member limited liability companies (LLCs), partnerships, and corporations, on the other hand, are already required to obtain an EIN by the IRS. This number acts like a business’s Social Security number and is used by business credit bureaus to identify your business and track its credit history.
  • Open a business checking account to pay for the business’s expenses and employees’ wages. This is required for businesses that are legally separate from their owners, such as LLCs or corporations, but can also be helpful for sole proprietorships in building business credit.
  • Obtain a business credit card using your business’s EIN. It is likely you will also have to provide your personal Social Security number, but the EIN will enable business credit bureaus to track prompt payments to establish a business credit score that is separate from your personal credit score.
  • Establish accounts with companies who will sell products to your small business on credit. Make sure that you consistently pay the bills on time. Ask them to report your business’s prompt payments to business credit bureaus and to provide positive credit references.
  • Contact business credit bureaus to register your small business. The credit bureaus can then open a business credit file for your company.
  • If you are currently operating a sole proprietorship, consider forming an LLC or corporation, which are legal entities that are separate from their owners. This will enable you to establish a clear delineation between your personal and business credit.

We Can Help

It is generally advisable to separate your business and personal affairs. As business law attorneys, we can help you structure your business in a way that optimizes your opportunities to build excellent business credit, separate from your personal credit, as well as guide you in the many aspects of your business planning. Call us at (228) 460-5243 or email us at info@perklawgroup.com to find our how your business planning attorney can help you.

Legal disclaimer: The information in this article is provided for information purposes only and should not be construed as legal advice. Your should not act or refrain from acting on the basis of any content included in this article or on our website (www.perklawgroup.com) without seeking legal or professional advice.

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Friday Tunes

The Friday Tunes are back and better than ever. Turn ’em up loud.

**LIVE MUSIC ALERT**

Rodney Crowell’s tour is coming to the Grand Magnolia for the latest installment of the Listening Room. In addition to seeing a fantastic entertainer, supporting this event ensures our local promoters can get more quality acts to town.

Buy tickets by CLICKING HERE. There are only a handful remaining.

Jason Isbell – 24 Frames

BORNS – 10,000 Emerald Pools

The Cure – Mint Car

Derek and the Dominoes – Bell Bottom Blues

Humble Pie – 30 Days in the Hole

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What Are the Biggest Estate Planning Questions I Need to Answer?

If you have a family, you can probably benefit from estate planning, regardless of your asset level. The Montrose Press published an article, “Estate plans can help you answer questions about the future,” that answers some of the big questions:

What will happen to my children? As part of your estate planning, you should name a guardian to take care of your children, if you pass away. You can also name a conservator–sometimes called a “guardian of the estate”–to manage the assets that your minor children inherit.

Will there be a battle over my assets? If you fail to put a solid estate plan in place, your assets could be subject to the time-consuming, expensive and public probate process. During probate, your relatives and creditors can get access to your records. They may even challenge your will. However, with proper planning, you can maintain your privacy.

Who will control my finances and my living situation, if I’m incapacitated? You can sign a durable power of attorney. This permits you to name someone to manage your financial affairs, if you’re incapacitated. A medical power of attorney lets the person you choose handle health care decisions for you, if you’re not able to do so yourself.

Will my family feel cheated if I leave significant assets to charities? As part of your estate plan, you have options. You could establish a charitable lead trust. This will provide financial support to your chosen charities for a set period. The remaining assets will then go to your family members. On the other hand, a charitable remainder trust will provide a stream of income for family members for the term of the trust. The remaining assets will then be transferred to one or more charitable organizations.

Careful estate planning with the help of an experienced estate planning attorney can answer many of the questions that may concern you.

Once you have your plans in place, you can face the future with greater clarity, peace of mind and confidence.

Call us (228) 460-5243 or email us at info@perklawgroup.com to find our how your estate planning attorney can help you.

Legal disclaimer: The information in this article is provided for information purposes only and should not be construed as legal advice. Your should not act or refrain from acting on the basis of any content included in this article or on our website (www.perklawgroup.com) without seeking legal or professional advice.

Reference: Montrose Press (July 7, 2019) “Estate plans can help you answer questions about the future”

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Small Business Saturday – Can Your Small Business Write Off Bad Debts

Despite your best efforts to work only with customers or clients you believe will pay for the goods or services your business provides and to diligently collect delinquent amounts owed, you will almost inevitably have to deal with bad debts on occasion. In some circumstances, the IRS allows you to take a bad debt deduction.

What Is Considered a Business Bad Debt?

According to the IRS, a business bad debt is considered a loss incurred from the worthlessness of a debt that was created or acquired in a trade or business or was “closely related” to your trade or business when it became partly or completely worthless. If your primary motive for incurring the debt was related to the business, the IRS will consider the debt to be closely related to the business.

The IRS provides the following examples of bad business debts: (1) loans to clients, suppliers, distributors, and employees, (2) credit sales to customers, or (3) business loan guarantees. For small businesses, the most common bad debt arises from credit sales to customers.

If the circumstances indicate that your business has no reasonable expectation that the debt will be repaid, it will be considered worthless. Depending upon the relevant facts, this could be on the date the debt is due or even prior to that date.

You must be able to demonstrate that you have made a reasonable effort to collect what is owed to your business prior to being eligible for the deduction. What is considered “reasonable” will vary depending upon the type of business in which you are engaged. It is unnecessary to sue the customer if you can show that a judgment would be uncollectible. For example, if the customer has filed for bankruptcy, this is sufficient to demonstrate that your debt is uncollectible and therefore worthless (assuming it is an unsecured debt).

Your Accounting Method Matters

If your small business uses the cash method of accounting, which is often preferred because it is less complicated than the accrual method, you report income during the year it is actually received. Because you have not reported amounts you merely expect to receive, but only those you have actually received, you cannot receive a tax deduction based on a bad business debt. Only businesses that use the accrual method of accounting—which reports income in the year earned despite not having been received—have the right to claim a deduction based upon a bad debt. This is because under the accrual method, a business never actually received the income reported to the IRS as a result of the customer’s failure to pay for the goods or services provided by the business. This does not provide an unfair advantage to businesses using the accrual method. Rather, it simply ensures that those businesses are not paying taxes on income reported but never actually received.

Note: The deduction is available only in the year the debt becomes worthless.

Contact Us Today

If your small business has suffered losses because of bad debts, and you are wondering if you may be entitled to write them off, we can help you navigate the applicable tax rules to minimize your tax liability, as well as provide guidance about steps you can take to avoid losses from bad debts. Please give us a call to set up a meeting.

Call us (228) 460-5243 or email us at info@perklawgroup.com to find our how your estate planning attorney can help you.

Legal disclaimer: The information in this article is provided for information purposes only and should not be construed as legal advice. Your should not act or refrain from acting on the basis of any content included in this article or on our website (www.perklawgroup.com) without seeking legal or professional advice.

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Avoiding a Family Feud When Choosing a Power of Attorney

The challenge in tasking a family member or trusted friend is not just making sure they have the necessary skills, but to navigate family dynamics so that no fights occur says Considerable.com in the article “How to assign power of attorney without sparking a family feud.” Every family situation is different, but in almost all cases, transparency is the best bet.

Start by understanding exactly what is meant by power of attorney, how it functions within the estate plan, and how siblings can all be involved to some degree with the family’s decision-making process.

Power of attorney is a term that gives an individual, or sometimes, individuals, the legal authority to act on behalf of someone else. It is usually used when a person, usually a parent or a spouse, is unable to make decisions for themselves because of illness or injury. It must be noted that power of attorney relates to financial and legal decisions. There are methods to address making decisions for another person for their health care or end-of-life decisions, but they are not accomplished by the power of attorney (POA).

It should be noted that there is a distinct difference between power of attorney and executor of the estate. Power of attorney is in effect while the person who has granted the authority is alive, but unable to act on their own behalf. The executor of the estate assumes responsibility for managing the estate through the probate process. While they are two different roles, they are often held by the same person, usually an adult child who is responsible and has good decision-making skills.

There are different types of power of attorney roles. The most common is the general power of attorney, followed by the health care or medical power of attorney. The general power of attorney refers to the person who has the authority to handle financial, business or private affairs. If a parent grants power of attorney to one of their children, that child then has the authority to act on behalf of the parent.

Trouble starts if the relationship between siblings is rocky, or if major decisions are made without discussions with siblings.

It’s not easy for siblings when one of them has been granted the power of attorney. That means they must accept the inherent authority of the chosen sibling to make all decisions for their parent. The sibling with the power of authority will have a smoother path if they can be sensitive to how this makes the others feel.

“Mom always liked you best,” is not a sentence that should come from a 50 year old, but often childhood dynamics can reappear during these times.

Remember that the power of attorney is also a fiduciary obligation, meaning that the person who holds it is required to act in the best interest of the parent and not their own. If the relationship between siblings is not good, or there’s no transparency when decisions are made, things can get bumpy.

Here are some tips for parents to bear in mind when deciding who should be their power of attorney:

  • Understand the great power that is being given to another person.
  • Make sure the person who is to be named POA understands the entire range of responsibilities they will have.
  • The siblings who have not been named will need to understand and respect the arrangement. They should also be aware of the potential for problems, keeping their eyes open and being watchful without being suspicious.

Some families appoint two siblings as a means of creating a “checks and balances” solution. This can be set up so the agents need to act jointly, where both agree on an action, or independently, where each has the full authority to act alone. In some cases, this will lesson the chances for jealousy and mistrust, but it can also prolong the decision-making process. It also creates the potential for situations where the family is engaged in a deadlock and important decisions don’t get made.

Parents should discuss these appointments with their estate planning attorney. Their years of experience in navigating family issues and dynamics give the attorneys insights that will be helpful with assigning these important tasks.

Call us (228) 460-5243 or email us at info@perklawgroup.com to find our how your estate planning attorney can help you.

Legal disclaimer: The information in this article is provided for information purposes only and should not be construed as legal advice. Your should not act or refrain from acting on the basis of any content included in this article or on our website (www.perklawgroup.com) without seeking legal or professional advice.

Reference: Considerable.com (July 10, 2019) “How to assign power of attorney without sparking a family feud”

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How Does a Life Estate Work?

Life estates are used for a number of estate planning purposes. However, the most frequent strategy is to use a life estate where a parent transfers a home to a child and retains a life estate for themselves.

nj.com’s recent article, “How does a life estate work to transfer a home to a child?” explains that as a result of the transfer, the child becomes the owner of the home but the parent has certain rights and responsibilities.

The most critical right retained with a life estate is the exclusive right to reside in the property. A child cannot force the parent to move out, and likewise, the child doesn’t have any right to live there. The child can live with their parent, but the deed doesn’t give the child the legal right to live there.

With a life estate, the parent must pay the property taxes and all the regular maintenance connected to the property. Typically, the life tenant is responsible for repairs—but not improvements.

This can be hard to determine, but usually the life tenant must maintain the property in the same condition as when the life estate deed was signed. So, if the parent moves out, and the property is rented, the parent has the right to receive all of the rents.

When the parent passes away, the life estate automatically ceases, and the child now has all of the rights associated with the property.

As far as income tax, when the parent dies, the property receives a “step up” in basis to the date of death value. If the property is sold after the parent dies, the capital gain or loss is calculated by deducting the date of death value from the sales price. It’s a very important tax advantage if the parent has owned the home for a long time, and the property has a low basis.

Retaining the life estate can help the child avoid the capital gains tax more effectively than just transferring the property outright to the child.

However, in contrast, if the property is sold while the parent is still alive, part of the proceeds will be allocated to the parent and part will be allocated to the child.

Only the percentage that’s allocated to the parent will be excluded from income under the federal tax laws. The part that’s allocated to the child may be subject to capital gains taxation.

Every family’s situation is different, so it would be wise to speak with an estate planning attorney to explore whether or not a life estate would be the best situation for you and your family.

Call us (228) 460-5243 or email us at info@perklawgroup.com to find our how your estate planning attorney can help you.

Legal disclaimer: The information in this article is provided for information purposes only and should not be construed as legal advice. Your should not act or refrain from acting on the basis of any content included in this article or on our website (www.perklwagroup.com) without seeking legal or professional advice.

Reference: nj.com (July 12, 2019) “How does a life estate work to transfer a home to a child?”

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